Regenerative Medicine is dealing with repair & restoration of function of damaged tissue.
Repair & regeneration of damaged tissue could happened in two ways transplanted stem cells could replace damage tissue by proliferation and self renewal , replacement of dead cells.
Secondly regeneration and repair of damaged tissue happened by paracrine effects of transplanted stem cells.here we are discuss about paracrine effects of stem cells in detail.
Paracrine effect of transplanted stem cells:
Transplanted stem cells secreate certain types of protein molecules , cytokines,growth factors which stimulate existing cells of that particular organ in such a way that cells start proliferate & self renew & because of that final outcome is repair of damaged tissue,every dead or damaged cells secreate certain type of chemicals called as cytokines which triggered by transplanted stem cells & further in return these cells secreate proteins .with reference to many preclinical studies it was found that repair of damaged tissue was done after donor stem cell transplant but when repaired tissue were analysed the donor cells were missing,further it was investigated & surprisingly found that repair was done through paracrine effect of donor cells.in mammalian existing cells are capable for wound healing until unless certain signalling should be initiated by donor stem cells.
Initially Scientists were disappointed when they observe that donor cells weren't actually contribute in regeneration of damaged tissue , transplanted unmatched donor cells could alive upto 1 or 2 weeks,in this short period paracrine effect completed & tissue regeneration happened.mesenchymal stem cells & hematopoietic stem cells are paracrine effect cells.these cells could be derived from bone marrow,fat, umbilical cord tissue and cord blood.
Damaged cells secreate certain proteins & cytokines which act as mediator to initiate immune response ,in return donor stem cells secreate proteins, cytokines which stimulate patients stem cells & help in to reduce inflammation,help in vascularization,increase blood flow to heal damaged tissue & help in to prevent death of patient cells .
Mesenchymal stem cells & cord blood cells shows significant effectiveness in heart muscle,skeletal muscle,nerve cell regeneration.
In one preclinical studies shows donor cord blood cells improve lower limb mobility and reduced wound size of spinal cord injured rats.Mesenchymal stem cells are widely used for various clinical applications.
It was observed when donor cells were transplanted less number of cells were actually engrafted & develop into particular cells of damaged tissue .
The repair of tissue & restoration of function mostly occurred due to paracrine effect.
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